A commercial beef fattening system, developed and used in Cuba since the 1970s, is based on free-choice final molasses mixed with 3% urea, restricted fish meal or another protein source, restricted forage (3% LW) and a free-choice mineral mix of 50% dicalcium phosphate and salt. A dark brown syrupy liquid with earthly caramel-like, non-pungent smell. Indian J. Nutr. No. Proceedings of an FAO Expert Consultation held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from 7–11 July 1986, Morales, J. L. ; Van Horn, H. H. ; Moore, J. E., 1989. Anim. The main purpose of using sugarcane or beet molasses in commercial rabbit feeds is to improve the pelleting process and the palatability of pellets. Anim. Feeding systems for fattening pigs fed molasses B diets and Saccharina feed. Molasses (or treacle in the UK consumer market) is a general term for concentrated juice from sugarcane or sugarbeet, or raw cane sugar in concentrated solution after varying amounts of sucrose have been removed. Potassium excess due to molasses can result in nephritis and diarrhoea (Leclerc, 2003). When molasses accounts for less than 20% of the total DM intake, their carbohydrates contribution tends to be complementary, rather than competitive with the others ingredients of the diets (Preston, 1986). For example in a study carried out in Benin, the incorporation of molasses at 5% in the diet of young growing rabbits did not improve average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake and mortality rate (Kpodékon et al., 2008). Res. Trop. These Ca2+ions inhibit the invertase activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the toxic level reported to be 2.16% (w/v)5and entailed in reduction of the ethanol production level. Asian-Aust. Adding urea to molasses is a common method to improve its nitrogen status (Preston, 1986). Intake and digestibility of nutritional blocks for rabbits, composed by three forage plants from semiarid habitats as compared to Neonotonia wightii. Molasses blocks as supplementary feed for growing rabbits. Poult. Response of chicks to graded concentrations of cane final molasses. In: Trends in agro-byproducts and their feeding potential in sub-Saharan Africa. 1, Brooks, C. C. ; Iwanaga, I. I., 1967. Molasses toxicity can be caused by a scarcity of drinking water or a too rapid switch-over to high molasses diet, so a close access to water and progressive adapation are necessary (Pérez, 1995). Composition and Process A by-product of sugar factories in countries growing sugar cane and/or sugar refineries processing raw sugar cane. Molasses has been tested in many trials in Latin America and Southern Asia. Sugarcane molasses has both nutrients and compounds, which are potential inhibitors of microbial cells. Effects of feeding different levels of sugar cane molasses to broiler chicks: feed intake, body weight gain, efficiency of feed utilization and dressing percentage. Molasses usually fed to animals is a liquid viscous product containing 70-75% DM. The symptoms of molasses toxicity are reduced body temperatures, weakness (animals have difficulty standing up), rapid breathing and even blindness (Pérez, 1995; Preston, 1986). Sugarcane molasses is extensively used in feeding ruminant, both as a binder for compound feeds or to supply additional energy to the diet (Pate et al., 1989). Molasses can be added to grass silage at about 5% (Fuller, 2004). Molasses supplementation generally increased lactation length and the percentage of non-fat solids in the milk (Chopping et al., 1976). Crumbs containing a lower proportion of molasses (10-15%) are well accepted by rabbits but drying is also required (Finzi et al., 1996; Linga et al., 2000). 6. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of cane molasses. Unconventional feeding technologies for rabbits in developing countries. Cuniculture, 8 (5): 240-244, Lebas, F.; Renouf, B., 2009. Molasses Is clean, sound, liquid product obtained by evaporating the juice of sugarcane and other alternative plant sources and removal of all or any part of the commercially crystallisable sugar 4 Essential composition and quality requirements 4.1 General requirements Dark sweet and black strap molasses … B. ; Bobadilla, M. ; Fernandez, A. ; Encarnacion, J. C. ; Preston, T. R., 1977. Sugar technology. Sci. Because molasses undergoes several processing steps in sugar cane milling, its composition is highly variable. Sudan J. Vet. Fatty acid composition of cane molasses and yeasts. 11, Mederos, C. M. ; Figueroa, V. ; Ly, J. ; Garcia, A., 1990. Molasses neuro-toxicity and higher volatile fatty acids in sheep. Both the sugar extraction process and the sugar refining process yield molasses, and each step of these processes output specific types of molasses. CAB Books, CABI, Bredon, R. M., 1957. Differences in chemical composition and digestibility of beet and cane molasses. Effect of Guinea grass on feed intake, digestibility and growth performance of rabbits fed a molasses block and either water spinach (, Dunlop, R. H. ; Bueno, L., 1979. J. A number of trials have shown that molasses-based liquid supplements containing urea tend to be inferior to supplements providing natural protein. In the tropics, molasses is also used in combination with other ingredients, such as roughages, poultry litter or animal by-products. Research Article Development of Sugar Cane Molasses in Formulations of Madeleines, Mini Croissants, and Buns Incorporated with Interesterified Oil AnisChikhoune, 1,2 FatihaBedjou, 3 SabrinaOubouzid, 2 RosaBoukefoussa, 2 BilalBechri, 2 HouriaTarmoul, 2 ToufikAbdeladim, 4 AbderrahmaneTounsi, 4 MouradHamitri, 4 SaidChikh, 4 andLouizaKouadri 4 Organic Materials … Livest. High levels of molasses have been suggested for laying hens (Soldevila et al., 1976). Competition between the faster-growing amylolytic bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic micro-organisms results in a decrease in the number of cellulolytic micro-organisms present, leading to a reduction in fibre digestion. Res., 15, 9–16, 0.25-0.5 kg/d for animals up to 200 kg LW, In some countries the juice is extracted in a simple animal or mechanically driven press, then boiled in open vats. CABI Publishing Series, 606 pp, Garg, A. K. ; Pathak, N. N., 1983. Final and high-test molasses for broilers. A synthetic medium with a similar composition to sugarcane molasses. Alimentacion porcina no-convencional. Molasses, in either liquid or solid form, is often used as a carrier for urea and other additives (Pérez, 1995). Health Prod., 42 (1): 13-20, Yany, Y. K.; Lee, P. K., 1982. Molasses toxicity in cattle: rumen fermentation and blood glucose entry rates associated with this condition. "Blackstrap" molasses is the by-product of raw cane sugar processing. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Partially refined sugar retains much of the nutrients of the raw, but the sucrose content is identical to that of white sugar. It has been postulated that the problem could be one of insufficient glucose precursors related to the digestion of the molasses, particularly since the demand for this nutrient is greater in milk than in beef (Pérez, 1995). Here will be described the different types of molasses that can be produced from clarifying, concentrating and/or extracting sucrose from sugarcane juice in a raw sugar factory and from refining raw sugar in a sugar refinery, as well as their primary use in animal feeds. Molasses are rich in potassium and should not be mixed with other potassium-rich ingredients such as whey (Leclerc, 2003). The molasses/urea mixture, which represents about 70% of the total diet DM, contains 91% final molasses and 6.5% water. Molasses. Survey of commercial rabbit feeds. Effect of cane molasses and glutamate fermentation and liquor as feed ingredient and feed efficiency of growing fattening pigs. Lower inclusion rates (less than 25% DM) generally seem preferable, for both practical and economic reasons (Göhl, 1982; Rosenberg, 1955). Sci., 52: 226-230, Reddy, J. S. ; Yadav, K. R. ; Mandal, A. Approximately 3 to 7 tons of molasses can be produced from 100 tons of fresh sugar cane (Pérez, 1997). Trop. The calcium content of sugar cane molasses is high (up to one percent), whereas the phosphorus content is low. FAOSTAT. The chemical composition of black strap molasses is presented in Table 1. Molasses fed in large amounts is toxic to livestock (Pérez, 1995;Dunlop et al., 1979). Sugarcane crop is cultivated for the production of sugar, but the processing of sugarcane yields various valuable products such as bagasse,[8] Brown sugar, molasses, syrup, and jaggery, along with sugar (table sugar). Treated organic wastes (33%), dry ration (33%) and B molasses (33%); Protein supplement (53%) and B molasses (47%); B molasses (70%) and Torula yeast cream (30%) (. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 72. Effect of processing on the nutritional value of molasses. Brahman Breeders' Association Limited, Brahman News, N°159, Balestra, G. F. ; Amici, A. ; Machin, D., 1992. Beet and cane molasses. Thorough drying requires at least 2 or 3 days in an electric oven (at 60 or 54°C respectively), or 3 to 6 days of sun-drying (Finzi et al., 1996; Linga et al., 2000; Nouel et al., 2003). Technol., 3: 15-22, Lebas, F. ; Tinel, B. ; Loupiac, B., 1984. Beside above, what is the chemical composition of molasses? This has been attributed to modifications in the production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen, resulting in reduced fibre digestion and lower forage intake (Granzin et al., 2005). In 1996 it appeared on Yugoslav market when a few sugar factories processed raw cane sugar. Sci., 17 (1): 83-92, Sharma, V. V. ; Paliwal, P. C., 1973. Sci., 33 (1): 31-35, Rosenberg, M. M., 1955. In India, laying hens fed 7.5 to 30% molasses (replacing maize grain) gave the best laying performance (hen-day production, total mass of eggs, cost of feed/12 eggs) at 22.5% molasses in the diet. Feeding of livestock in Uganda. In a study with growing tropical bulls fed rice straw, the best growth (982 g/d vs. 682 g/d) was obtained with 15% molasses + urea; however, 30% molasses depressed growth. Variable animal responses have been observed at these levels, depending on the relative proportions of the other diet ingredients (forage:concentrate ratio, starch content, etc.). Les aliments du bétail sous les tropiques. Cuban J. Agric. Sci., 24 (2): 480-487, Ly, J., 1989. J. Anim. It is a byproduct of the sugar-making process, and it comes from crushed sugar cane or … Effect of partial replacement of wheat by rice polish and molasses on the performance of laying pullets. Sci., 24: 71-77, Mee, J. M. L. ; Brooks, C. C. ; Stanley, R. W., 1979. Rech. The results show that high proportions of dietary molasses can be efficiently used by rabbits. Molasses in beef nutrition. World Rabbit Science, 3 (2): 69-73, Arthington, J. D., 2008. The quality of both sugarcane juice and molasses is affected by the nutrients and topology of the soil, variety of sugarcane, climate and harvesting. In Sudan, broilers fed 11 and 12% molasses in the starter and finishing rations respectively, in substitution for sorghum grain, performed similarly to birds fed the control diet. In sugarcane processing process, except for main products like white sugar and brown sugar, there are 3 main by-products: sugarcane bagasse, press mud, and blackstrap molasses. Sugarcane molasses is a dark viscous fluid with pH value of 5 and very rich in nutrients required by most microorganisms. J. Taiwan Livest. Final molasses or raw sugar for the feeding of fattening pigs. Cane molasses is also high in sodium, potassium, magnesium and sulphur. It is a major feed ingredient, used as an energy source and as a binder in compound feeds. Sci., 25 (1-2): 151-161, Figueroa, V. ; Ly, J., 1990. or included in the diet. When fed alone to cattle or mixed with only 3% urea, the palatability of molasses was not affected and therefore it should be restricted to 2-3 kg/d. To develop the SM medium, a basal molasses medium, described elsewhere [], was modified based on the average sugarcane molasses composition described in other studies [10, 26, 34, 40,41,42], in order to obtain a … Raw materials utilization and feeding techniques: new contributions in the 9th World Rabbit Congress. Effect of different levels of sugarcane molasses on egg production. Introduction Sugarcane molasses is primarily used for sweetening and flavoring foods. However, the presence of molasses in balanced rabbit diets does not have nutritional benefits. It contains no preservatives, artificial flavors or artificial colors and is fat free, gluten free and Kosher. Occasional Bulletin No. Nutritional efficiency depends on the other ingredients included in the blocks (cereal grains or their by-products, oil meals, forages, etc.) Sugarcane Bagasse: Bagasse is the fibrous residue from the sugar cane after extracting cane juice.Sugarcane bagasse can be very well utilized for production of organic fertilizer. Cuban J. Agric. Prod., 11: 481-484. Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. The encyclopedia of farm animal nutrition. For instance, in temperate areas, 10% molasses is recommended for animals fed energy-rich diets, but it is possible to include up to 15% if the diet contains straw or hay. The word molasses comes from the Portuguese word melaço. It may be negatively affected by the ash content. However, a significant portion of the final molasses consists of the altered reaction products formed … Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agricola, 4 (2): 111, Pérez, R., 1995. From a nutritional point of view, it is primarily a source of energy, due to its high sugar content (60-70% DM). Molasses is a valuable additive for silage making when ensiling conditions are difficult, or when the forage is a poor quality grass (warm-season grass) or a legume. The minimum order quantity of Sugarcane Molasses should be 100 units. The proportion of the non-sugar fraction increases from A to C molasses (Pérez, 1995). In India, molasses was added in broiler mash at up to 10% (replacing maize grain) without affecting performance, but adding molasses directly in the drinking water (2-3% v/v) depressed body weight (Reddy et al., 1998). J. Agric. Anim. B., 1998. 215 pp, Finzi, A. ; Amici, A., 1996. Not only is molasses difficult to handle and to mix with other ingredients, but it may cause diarrhoea and can be detrimental to performance, including feed conversion ratio, energy digestibility and N retention (Le Dividich et al., 1974). During the 1983-1985 famine in Ethiopia, molasses was used as an emergency feed for the survival of breeding cattle (Menbere, 1986). Bagasse is usually as combustible material which burn in furnace or boiler to produce steam which is run to turbine which run generator to produce electricity. The organic matter composition of these Sugarcane Molasses comprises of sucrose 44%, fructose 13%, glucose 10%, betaine-amino acids, etc. Molasses as animal feed: an overview. Anim. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. 9th World Rabbit Congress – June 10-13, 2008 – Verona – Italy: 711-715, Le Dividich, J. ; Sève, B. ; Kempf, H., 1974. Cuban J. Agric. Egyptian Poult. The world production of sugarcane and beet molasses was 60 million t in 2007 (FAO statistics do not differentiate between both origins). Since it is different in composition from beet molasses, it this work the chemical composition, physical and fermentative properties of "Blackstrap" molasses were investigated. Food Chem., 8: 380-382, Kpodékon, T. M. ; Youssao, A. K. I. ; Tossou, C. M. ; Djago, A. Y. ; Coudert, P., 2008. Nutrition and feeding of organic cattle. Diarrhoea in pigs fed molasses-rich diets was reduced or eliminated by adding an adsorbing fibrous material such as bagasse pith or bran to the diet (Brooks et al., 1967). The element with the highest concentration that are found by using XRF in untreated sugarcane bagasse is water, H2O (98.5 %), followed by Sodium, Na (0.669 %), and Sulfur, S (0.638 %). Sci. The processing of sugarcane in a large scale industry for the production of sugar is shown in Figure 1. Milk production from irrigated nitrogen fertilized pangola grass. To develop the SM medium, a basal molasses medium, described elsewhere , was modified based on the average sugarcane molasses composition described in other studies [10, 26, 34, 40–42], in order to Table 2. Journée d'étude ASFC « Vérone - Ombres & Lumières » 5 février 2009: 30-36, Leclerc, M.-C., 2003. However, the daily gains obtained with molasses were lower than those obtained with the same proportion of soybean hulls or maize grain (Royes et al., 2001). Rumen parakeratosis may also occur in animals fed high levels of molasses (Pate, 1983). J. Anim. Sci. Feeding pigs in the tropics. J. Anim. Relations between components. Molasses contains some amount of Ca2+because CaO is used for clari・…ation of the sugarcane juice during the sugar production process. In this rudimentary process, pan (uncrystallized) sugar is produced and the by-product molasses is called ". A mature stalk is typically composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% non-sugars, and 63–73% water. The amount used in dry feeds is usually small, lower than 15% DM and usually in the 2-5% range (Blair, 2007; Fuller, 2004). In molasses-rich diets with cows grazing succulent pastures, scouring and bloating may occur (Ashwood, 2008). Sci., 27: 177-181, Granzin, B. C. ; McDryden, G., 2005. The main use of cane molasses is as a binding agent in feed mills. Molasses is free of fat and fibre with a low nitrogen content. with sugar beet molasses, is explainable due to the fact that the reducing sugars are more represented in the trunk of the sugarcane plant, and also have the lowest quality extraction processes used in the producing countries [6]. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/561 Last updated on October 9, 2015, 10:54, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), Adesogan, A. T. ; Newman, Y. C., 2010. Molasses seems to cause brain damage when fed at high levels and with low roughage inclusion. Rev. Sugarcane molasses is the major food molasses. Preston, T. R., 1986. Prod., 4 (1): 78-89, Royes, J. Effect of processing on the nutritional value of feeds. The molasses contained 84º brix, 17% reducing sugars, 32% sucrose, 49% total sugars, 12.69% ash (w/v) on wet weight basis. Initial studies on the production and use of molasses blocks in the feeding of forage fed rabbits. Due to its laxative effect, molasses can be used at 10 to 20% of the diet to correct problems of constipation in sows at farrowing time (Blair, 2007). Problèmes généraux de l’utilisation des sous-produits agro-industriels en alimentation animale dans la région méditerranéenne. The, pH value of obtained molasses was 5.8. Sci., 34 (1): 133-140, Rostagno, H. S. ; Teixeira, A. ; Donzele, J. L. ; Gomes, P. C. ; De Oliveira, R. F. M. ; Lopes, D. C. ; Ferreira, A. J. P. ; Toledo Barreto, S. L., 2005. Feed Sci. If used as a carrier for higher concentrations of urea, the bitterness of the urea serves as an auto-regulator causing the cattle to consume about 1 kg/d (Pérez, 1995). 5. Molasses, the thick, dark brown syrup you might buy at the grocery store, is found naturally in sugar beet and sugar cane plants and is a co-product of sugar refining.During the refining process, it is separated from the sugar crystals by spinning the sugar in a centrifuge. Small amounts of molasses in a roughage-based diet stimulate rumen fermentation and the rumen cellulolytic potential is maintained or improved with low quality forage diets. In: Tropical Feeds and Feeding Systems, First FAO Electronic Conference (1995), Pérez, R., 1997. Molasses is deficient in nitrogen and, therefore, N supplementation is often required to optimize rumen fermentation and to provide by-pass protein to balance the nutrients available for the animal's metabolism. Cane molasses is also high in sodium, potassium and magnesium, and contains significant quantities of copper, zinc, iron and manganese. Molasses provides readily fermentescible energy that promotes lactic acid bacteria development, subsequently reduces pH and improves silage quality. The average daily gain ranges between 0.8 and 1 kg/d. Total substitution of corn by high-test sugarcane molasses in broilers. Sustain. Health Prod., 34 (3): 231-239, Fuller, M. F., 2004. In 2007, 15.9 million t molasses (from sugar cane and sugar beet) were used to feed livestock. However, the high moisture content causes problems of mold after very short term storage. Effect of molasses supplementation of a roughage based diet on growth performances of cattle. Sci., 86 (6): 1472–1477, Ashwood, A., 2008. Molasses allows the feed granules to stick together during the pelleting process, which produces pellets that are less likely to break down during transportation and passage through feeding equipment.